The Romans put an end to Jewish sovereignty in the land of Israel in 63 B.C.E. when General Pompey conquered Judea. It would not be until 1948 and the establishment of the Third Jewish Commonwealth (The State of Israel) that the Jewish people would regain self-sovereignty.
The Romans held sway over Judea from 63 B.C.E. to 313 C.E. when they were defeated by the Arabs.
Under the Romans, the Jews were incorporated as yet another ethnic group in their growing imperial system. Roman rule, however, was corrupt and insensitive to Jewish practices. Twice--first in 66 C.E. and then in 132 C.E.-the Jews rose up against their Roman oppressors; these became known as the First and Second Jewish Revolts. Both times, however, the Jews were defeated by the Romans, and the conquerers lauded their victories through the minting of coins and the building of monuments. For example, to celebrate the Roman defeat of the First Jewish Revolt, numerous "Judea Capta" coins were minted in 71 C.E.
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Rebellion Against Roman Rule
Roman rule over Judea, marked by corruption and insensitivity to Jewish religious practices, aroused Jewish nationalist fervor that resulted in two Jewish revolts. The Romans, however, after fierce fighting managed to defeat both Jewish revolts and to re-establish their rule over Judea.
Small bronze coin, big lesson on price of rebellion
Arch of Titus
Jews Lose Temple and Treasures to Romans
Bust of Hadrian
Meet Hadrian, emperor of newly named Palestine
Artifact from Jerusalem as Roman colony